An interesting philosopher who was in contact with Eric Fromm, Herbert Marcuse..To name but a few..She was also in contact with Leon Trotsky, but eventually she broke with him in 1940 around the weird position of LD Trotsky, namely that “the USSR was a degenerate workers’ State”. Dunayevskaya had read Marx , she knew what Stalin’s USSR had become, a tyranny also called State capitalism, ie. capitalism without basic freedoms..Lenin had paved the way for Stalin… This idea was not shared by Dunayevskaya..And to this day the MARXIST-HUMANISTS cannot see that Lenin paved the way for Stalin, as Anton Ciliga had written in his excellent book THE RUSSIAN ENIGMA in the thirties..
But there is another stain on the Marxist-Humanists and that is the problem of the massacre of the Kronstadt Commune in 1921.
16,000 soldiers, sailors, and workers (the flower of the Russian Revolution) rose up against the Bolshevik dictatorship , they wanted more freedom…Trotsky gave the revolutionaries an ultimatum: “If you do not surrender you will be shot like pheasants.”
And this is what took place..Lenin after the massacre took place ,in a candid moment of lucidity admitted that the Kronstadt insurrectionists “were not White Guards, but they were not for us either”..
Raya Dunayevskaya never condemned the Kronstadt massacre, and to this day the so-called Marxist-Humanists stick to that bloody position. Dave Black in his presentation -of the book he co-authored with Chris Ford on the Chartists -an excellent acount of that movement-, published by Unkant 2012, – at the Workers’ Education Institute in london on the 18 th of May 2012 spoke for the need for compassion, maybe it is the time for the Marxist-Humanists to have another critical look at their positions on the Kronstadt massacre of 1921..
As for Trotsky, the harsh treatment he had ordered against the Kronstadt sailors, workers and soldiers will come back to haunt him, this is what Stalin did against him, he waited for a long time before sending a seceret agent to finish off his opponent. History is a cruel business , full of twists and turns..
Today Russia is run by an ex-KGB chief..If you cannot understand Lenin, Stalin, it will difficlut to understand what was before the 1917 revolution and what took place after the fall of the Berlin wall. That is dialectics..You need critical theory..You need to tell the truth..